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The contents of this report reflect the views of the author(s), who is responsible for the facts and the accuracy of the data presented herein. The contents do not necessarily reflect the official views or policies of the Virginia Department of Transportation, the Commonwealth Transportation Board, or the Federal Highway Administration. This report does not constitute a standard, specification, or regulation. Any inclusion of manufacturer names, trade names, or trademarks is for identification purposes only and is not to be considered an endorsement.


Development of Guidelines for the Installation of Marked Crosswalks
Lance E. Dougald
Lance E. Dougald
Year: 2004
VTRC No.: 05-R18
Abstract: The Manual on Uniform Traffic Control Devices (MUTCD) provides little guidance on the installation of marked crosswalks, especially at locations other than intersections, i.e., mid-block locations. Crosswalks have typically been installed and designed on the basis of engineering judgment. The MUTCD is a good resource for information on the design aspects of crosswalk pavement markings, pedestrian signals, and signage. However, the MUTCD does not provide explicit guidance for determining where and when to install a marked crosswalk if a need exists. The purpose of this research was to develop guidelines for the installation of marked crosswalks that the Virginia Department of Transportation (VDOT) could use statewide. The scope of the research was limited to a review of the literature on marking crosswalks. The author postulated that the information found in the literature could be used to develop guidelines acceptable to VDOT, thus saving an extensive and costly field-based research effort. A task group consisting of VDOT planners and traffic engineers from VDOT's central office and district offices was established to provide oversight, guidance, and, as appropriate, approval of the developed draft guidelines. Based on the findings and conclusions of the literature review, draft guidelines were compiled and synthesized and then presented to the task group for review and discussion. Revised guidelines were then developed and recommended for pilot implementation The guidelines developed address where and under what conditions marked crosswalks are to be installed at controlled locations, uncontrolled locations, and unconventional intersections and locations. Controlled locations include locations where the approaches to an intersection are controlled by signals, stop signs, or yield signs. Uncontrolled locations include approaches to an intersection and mid-block locations where traffic control devices are absent. Unconventional intersections and locations include T, skewed, and offset intersections; hills; and curves.