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The contents of this report reflect the views of the author(s), who is responsible for the facts and the accuracy of the data presented herein. The contents do not necessarily reflect the official views or policies of the Virginia Department of Transportation, the Commonwealth Transportation Board, or the Federal Highway Administration. This report does not constitute a standard, specification, or regulation. Any inclusion of manufacturer names, trade names, or trademarks is for identification purposes only and is not to be considered an endorsement.

Title:

Creep of High-strength Normal and Lightweight Concrete
Authors:
Vincent, Edward C.
Townsend, Bradley D.
Weyers, Richard E.
Year: 2004
VTRC No.: 04-CR8
Abstract: In addition to immediate elastic deformations, concrete undergoes time-dependent deformations that must be considered in design. Creep is defined as the time-dependent deformation resulting from a sustained stress. Shrinkage deformation is the time-dependent strain that occurs in the absence of an applied load. The total strain of a concrete member is the sum of elastic, creep, and shrinkage strains. Test beams for the Pinner's Point Bridge were produced by Bayshore Concrete Products Corp. using a high-strength normal weight concrete (HSC) mixture and the Chickahominy River Bridge beams using a high-strength lightweight concrete (LTHSC) mixture. The test beams and the Chickahominy River Bridge beams were fabricated with thermocouples to track interior concrete temperatures, and vibrating wire gages (VWGs) were placed at the center of prestressing to record changes in strain. Laboratory creep and shrinkage testing was conducted on specimens prepared with identical materials and similar mixture proportions in the casting of the bridge beams. The temperature profile from the beams during steam curing was used to produce match-cured specimens for laboratory testing. Two match-cured batches were produced, along with two standard cured batches. The creep room had a temperature of 23.0 ± 1.7°C (73.4 ± 3ºF) and a relative humidity of 50 ± 4%. Companion shrinkage specimens were also placed in the creep room. Measurements were taken on the creep and shrinkage specimens using a Whittemore gage. Four HSC cylinders were also equipped with embedded VWGs so that the interior and exterior strains could be compared. The Whittemore and VWG elastic and creep strains were similar, while the VWGs recorded significantly less shrinkage. The measured creep and shrinkage strains were compared to different prediction models to determine which model was the most accurate. The models considered were ACI 209, ACI 209 modified by Huo, CEB Model Code 90, AASHTO-LRFD, Gardner GL2000, Tadros, and Bazant B3. The ACI 209 modified by Huo was the most accurate in predicting time-dependent strains for the HSC mixture. The best overall predictor for the LTHSC time-dependent deformations was the Gardner GL 2000 model for the standard cure LTHSC specimens, whereas the ACI 209 model was the best predictor of the total stains and individual time-dependent deformations for the match-cured LTHSC mixture.