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The contents of this report reflect the views of the author(s), who is responsible for the facts and the accuracy of the data presented herein. The contents do not necessarily reflect the official views or policies of the Virginia Department of Transportation, the Commonwealth Transportation Board, or the Federal Highway Administration. This report does not constitute a standard, specification, or regulation. Any inclusion of manufacturer names, trade names, or trademarks is for identification purposes only and is not to be considered an endorsement.

Title:

Evaluation of Models for Predicting (Total) Creep of Prestressed Concrete Mixtures
Authors:
Meyerson, Richard M.
Weyers, Richard E.
Mokarem, David W.
D. Stephen Lane
D. Stephen Lane
Michael M. Sprinkel
Michael M. Sprinkel
Year: 2001
VTRC No.: 03-CR5
Abstract: Concrete experiences volume changes throughout its service life. When loaded, concrete experiences an instantaneous recoverable elastic deformation and a slow inelastic deformation called creep. Creep of concrete is composed of two components, basic creep, or deformation under load without moisture loss and drying creep, or deformation under drying conditions only. Deformation of concrete in the absence of applied load is often called shrinkage. The deformation due to creep is attributed to the movement of water between the different phases of the concrete. When an external load is applied, it changes the attraction forces between the cement gel particles. This change in the forces causes an imbalance in the attractive and disjoining forces. However, the imbalance is gradually eliminated by the transfer of moisture into the pores in cases of compression, and away from the pores in cases of tension. Designs typically use one of the two code models to estimate creep and shrinkage strain in concrete, ACI 209 model recommended by the American Concrete Institute or the CEB 90 Eurocode 2 model recommended by the Euro-International Committee. The AASHTO LRFD is based on the ACI 209 model. Three other models are the B3 model, developed by Bazant; the GZ model, developed by Gardner; and the SAK model developed by Sakata. The objectives of this research was the development of performance limits for compressive creep of concrete mixtures used by the Virginia Department of Transportation, specifically concrete mixtures used for prestressed members (A-5 Concrete) and the determination the accuracy and precision of the creep models presented in the literature. The CEB 90 Eurocode 2 model for creep and shrinkage is the most precise and accurate predictor. The total creep strain for the VDOT portland cement concrete mixtures discussed in this study were found to be between 1200 +/- 110 microstrain at 28 days, and 1600 +/- 110 microstrain at 97 days, at a five percent significant level. It is recommended that the CEB 90 model be used in the AASHTO LRFD rather than the ACI 209 model to improve the prediction of prestress loss.